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《약천집藥泉集》의 책판문양, 사격자칠보문[斜格子七寶紋] 《약천집》의 책판문양으로 칠보문을 중심에 두고 사격자를 바탕으로 구성한 사격자칠보문입니다. 칠보란 극락정토에 있는 일곱 가지 귀한 보물로 칠보문도 여기서 유래하였으나 차차 길상문으로 형상화되었습니다. 우리나라와 중국, 일본의 상류사회에서 길리吉利를 추구하는 대표적인 상징물로 특히 자손들에게 좋은 일이 많이 일어나고 재앙을 물리친다는 기원의 의미를 지니고 있습니다.

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  • 도서

    The manual of photography : photographic and digital imaging
    • 저자 :
      Jacobson, R. E
    • 발행처 :
      Focal Press
    • 발행연도 :
      0000
    • 언어 :
      [한국어]
    • 한국과학기술원 도서관
      상세정보

      상세정보

      표제
      The manual of photography : photographic and digital imaging
      저자사항
      Jacobson, R. E
      발행처
      Focal Press
      발행연도
      0000
      분류기호
      언어
      [한국어]
      닫기
  • 도서

    (The)manual of photography : photographic and digital imaging Ralph E. Jacobson ... [et al.]
    • 발행처 :
      Focal Press
    • 발행연도 :
      2000
    • 언어 :
      [한국어]
    • 국립중앙도서관
      목차 상세정보

      상세정보

      표제
      (The)manual of photography : photographic and digital imaging Ralph E. Jacobson ... [et al.]
      저자사항
      발행처
      Focal Press
      발행연도
      2000
      분류기호
      언어
      [한국어]
      닫기
      상세페이지
      CONTENTS Preface to the First edition of The IIford Manual of Photography(1890) = ⅸ Preface to the ninth edition = xi 1 Imaging systems / Ralph E. Jacobson = 1 The production of images = 1 Photographic and digital imaging = 2 General characteristics of reproduction systems = 5 Imaging chains = 6 The reproduction of tone and colour = 6 Image quality expectations = 7 2 Fundamentals of light and vision / Ralph E. Jacobson = 9 Light waves and particles = 9 Optics = 10 The electromagnetic spectrum = 10 The eye and vision = 11 3 Photographic light sources / Sidney F. Ray = 16 Characteristics of light sources = 16 Light output = 21 Daylight = 25 Tungsten­Filament lamps = 25 Tungsten­halogen lamps = 26 Fluorescent lamps = 27 Metal­halide lamps = 27 Pulsed xenon lamps = 27 Expendable flashbulbs = 28 Electronic flash = 29 Other sources = 38 4 The geometry of image formation / Sidney F. Ray = 39 Interaction of light with matter = 39 Image formation = 41 The simple lens = 42 Image formation by a compound lens = 43 Graphical construction of images = 45 The lens conjugate equation = 45 Field angle of view = 48 Covering power of a lens = 49 Geometric distortion = 49 Depth of field = 50 Depth of field equations = 53 Depth of focus = 56 Perspective = 57 6 The photometry of image formation / Sidney F. Ray = 61 Stops and pupils = 61 Aperture = 62 Mechanical vignetting = 62 Image illumination = 63 Image illuminance with wide­angel lenses = 66 Exposure compensation for close­up photography = 67 Light losses and lens transmission = 68 Flare and its effects = 68 T­numbers = 69 Anti­reflection coatings = 69 6 Optical aberrations and lens performance / Sidney F. Ray = 72 Introduction = 72 Axial chromatic aberration = 72 Lateral chromatic aberration = 74 Spherical aberration = 75 Coma = 76 Curvature of field = 77 Astigmatism = 77 Curvilinear distortion = 78 Diffraction = 79 Resolution and resolving power = 80 Modulation transfer function = 81 7 Camera lenses / Sidney F. Ray = 83 Simple lenses = 83 Compound lenses = 83 Development of the photographic lens = 85 Modern camera lenses = 88 Wide­angle lenses = 91 Long­focus lenses = 93 Zoom and varifocal lenses = 95 Macro lenses = 98 Teleconverters = 99 Optical attachments = 100 Special effects = 102 8 Types of camera / Sidney F. Ray = 104 Survey of development = 104 Camera types = 107 Special purpose cameras = 113 Automatic cameras = 115 Digital cameras = 120 Architecture of the digital camera = 125 9 Camera features / Sidney F. Ray = 131 Shutter systems = 131 The iris diaphragm = 136 Viewfinder systems = 138 Flash synchronization = 143 Focusing systems = 144 Autofocus systems = 151 Exposure metering systems = 154 Battery power = 160 Data imprinting = 161 10 Camera movements / Sidney F. Ray = 163 Introduction = 163 Translational movements = 165 Rotational movements = 165 Lens covering power = 166 Control of image sharpness = 168 Limits to lens tilt = 170 Control of image shape = 171 Perspective control lenses = 173 Shift cameras = 174 11 Optical flters / Sidney F. Ray = 176 Optical filters = 176 Filter sizes = 178 Filters and focusing = 178 Colour filters for black­and­white photography = 179 Colour filters for colour photography = 182 Special filters = 183 Polarizing filters = 186 Filters for darkroom use = 189 12 Sensitive materials and image sensors / Ralph E. Jacobson = 191 Latent image formation in silver halides = 191 Image formation by charge­coupled devices = 193 Production of light­sensitive materials and sensors = 195 Sizes and formats of photographic and electronic sensors and media = 200 13 Spectral sensitivity of photographic materials / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 205 Response of photographic materials to short­wave radiation = 205 Response of photographic materials to visible radiation = 206 Spectral sensitization = 207 Orthochromatic materials = 208 Panchromatic materials = 208 Extended sensitivity materials = 208 Infrared materials = 209 Other uses of dye sensitization = 209 Determination of the colour sensitivity of an unknown material = 210 Wedge spectrograms = 210 Spectral sensitivity of digital cameras = 211 14 Principles of colour photography / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 213 Colour matching = 213 The first colour photograph = 214 Additive colour photography = 214 Subtractive colour photography = 214 Additive processes = 215 Subtractive processes = 217 Integral tripacks = 217 15 Sensitometry / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 218 The subject = 218 Exposure = 218 Density = 219 Effect of light scatter in a negative = 220 Callier coefficient = 220 Density in practice = 221 The characteristic (H and D) curve = 222 Main regions of the negative characteristic curve = 223 Variation of the characteristic curve with the material = 225 Variation of the characteristic curve with development = 225 Gamma­time curve = 226 Variation of gamma with wavelength = 227 Placing of the subject on the characteristic curve = 227 Average gradient and $$\bar G$$ = 228 Contrast index = 228 Effect of variation in development on the negative = 228 Effect of variation in exposure on the negative = 229 Exposure latitude = 230 The response curve of a photographic paper = 231 Maximum black = 231 Exposure range of a paper = 232 Variation of the print curve with the type of emulsion = 232 Variation of the print curve with development = 233 Requirements in a print = 234 Paper contrast = 234 The problem of the subject of high contrast = 235 Tone reproduction = 236 Reciprocity law failure = 238 Sensitometric practice = 239 Sensitometers = 240 Densitometers = 241 Elementary sensitometry = 244 Sensitometry of a digital camera = 245 16 The reproduction of colour / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 247 Colours of the rainbow = 247 Colours of natural objects = 247 Effect of the light source on the appearance of colours = 248 Response of the eye to colours = 248 Primary and complementary colours = 249 Complementary pairs of colours = 250 Low light levels = 250 Black­and­white processes = 250 Colour processes = 251 Formation of subtractive image dyes = 254 Colour sensitometry = 254 Imperfections of colour processes = 258 Correction of deficiencies of the subtractive system = 259 Masking of colour materials = 260 Problems of duplication = 261 The chemistry of colour image formation = 263 Chromogenic processes = 263 Silver­dye­bleach process = 268 Instant colour processes = 269 Alternative method for instant photography = 271 17 Photographic processing / Ralph E. Jacobson = 273 Developers and development = 273 Developing agents = 273 Preservatives = 276 Alkalis = 276 Restrainers (anti­foggants) = 277 Miscellaneous additions to developers = 277 Superadditivity (synergesis) = 278 Monochrome developer formulae in general use = 279 Changes in a developer with use = 282 Replenishment = 283 Preparing developers = 284 Techniques of development = 285 Obtaining the required degree of development = 289 Quality control = 292 Processing following development = 293 Rinse and stop baths = 293 Fixers = 294 Silver recovery = 296 Bleaching of silver images = 298 Washing = 299 Tests for permanence = 300 Drying = 301 18 Speed of materials, sensors and systems / Ralph E. Jacobson = 302 Speed of photographic media = 302 Methods of expressing speed = 302 Speed systems and standards = 305 ISO speed ratings for colour materials = 306 Speed of digital systems = 307 Speed ratings in practice = 308 19 Camera exposure determination / Sidney F. Ray = 310 Camera exposure = 310 Optimum exposure criteria = 311 Exposure latitude = 311 Subject luminance ratio = 312 Development variations = 313 Exposure determination = 313 Practical exposure tests = 315 Light measurement = 315 Exposure meter calibration = 316 Exposure values = 318 Incident light measurements = 318 Exposure meters in practice = 320 Photometry units = 323 Spot meters = 324 In­camera metering systems = 324 Electronic flash exposure metering = 329 Automatic electronic flash = 333 20 Hard copy output media / Ralph E. Jacobson = 336 Hard copy output = 336 Photographic papers = 336 Type of silver halide emulsion = 336 Paper contrast = 337 Paper surface = 338 Paper base = 339 Colour photographic papers = 339 Processing photographic paper = 340 Pictrography and Pictrostat = 344 Dry Silver materials = 345 Cylithographic materials / Cycolor = 346 Thermal imaging materials = 346 Materials for ink­jet printing = 347 21 Production of hard copy / Ralph E. Jacobson = 348 Photographic printing and enlarging = 349 types of enlargers = 349 Light sources for enlarging and printing = 353 Lenses for enlargers = 354 Ancillary equipment = 355 Exposure determination = 355 Conventional image manipulation = 358 Colour printing = 359 Colour enlarger design = 362 Types of colour enlarger = 363 Methods of evaluating colour negatives for printing = 365 Digital output = 367 Evaluating the results = 370 22 Life expectancy of imaging media / Ralph E. Jacobson = 372 Life expectancy of photographic media = 372 Processing conditions = 373 Storage conditions = 375 Atmospheric gases = 376 Toning = 377 Light fading = 378 Life expectancy of digital media = 379 23 Colour matters / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 383 Specification by sample = 383 The physical specification of colour = 384 Specification of colour by synthesis = 384 Colour gamuts = 389 Summing up = 392 24 Theory of image formation / Norman R. Axford = 393 Sinusoidal waves = 394 Images and sine waves = 395 Imaging sinusoidal patterns = 397 Fourier theory of image formation = 398 Measuring modulation transfer functions (MTF) = 406 Discrete transforms and sampling = 408 The MTF for a CCD imaging array = 411 Image quality and MTF = 411 25 Images and information / Norman R. Axford = 413 Image noise = 413 Photographic noise = 413 Quantifying image noise = 417 Practical considerations for the autocorrelation function and the noise power spectrum = 419 Signal­to­noise ratio = 420 Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) = 422 Information theory = 426 26 Digital image processing and manipulation / Norman R. Axford = 428 Linear spatial filtering (convolution) = 428 Frequency domain filtering = 429 Non­linear filtering = 433 Statistical operations (point, grey­level operations) = 434 Image restoration = 438 Edge detection and segmentation = 442 Image data compression = 443 Index = 447
      CONTENTS Preface to the First edition of The IIford Manual of Photography(1890) = ⅸ Preface to the ninth edition = xi 1 Imaging systems / Ralph E. Jacobson = 1 The production of images = 1 Photographic and digital imaging = 2 General characteristics of reproduction systems = 5 Imaging chains = 6 The reproduction of tone and colour = 6 Image quality expectations = 7 2 Fundamentals of light and vision / Ralph E. Jacobson = 9 Light waves and particles = 9 Optics = 10 The electromagnetic spectrum = 10 The eye and vision = 11 3 Photographic light sources / Sidney F. Ray = 16 Characteristics of light sources = 16 Light output = 21 Daylight = 25 Tungsten­Filament lamps = 25 Tungsten­halogen lamps = 26 Fluorescent lamps = 27 Metal­halide lamps = 27 Pulsed xenon lamps = 27 Expendable flashbulbs = 28 Electronic flash = 29 Other sources = 38 4 The geometry of image formation / Sidney F. Ray = 39 Interaction of light with matter = 39 Image formation = 41 The simple lens = 42 Image formation by a compound lens = 43 Graphical construction of images = 45 The lens conjugate equation = 45 Field angle of view = 48 Covering power of a lens = 49 Geometric distortion = 49 Depth of field = 50 Depth of field equations = 53 Depth of focus = 56 Perspective = 57 6 The photometry of image formation / Sidney F. Ray = 61 Stops and pupils = 61 Aperture = 62 Mechanical vignetting = 62 Image illumination = 63 Image illuminance with wide­angel lenses = 66 Exposure compensation for close­up photography = 67 Light losses and lens transmission = 68 Flare and its effects = 68 T­numbers = 69 Anti­reflection coatings = 69 6 Optical aberrations and lens performance / Sidney F. Ray = 72 Introduction = 72 Axial chromatic aberration = 72 Lateral chromatic aberration = 74 Spherical aberration = 75 Coma = 76 Curvature of field = 77 Astigmatism = 77 Curvilinear distortion = 78 Diffraction = 79 Resolution and resolving power = 80 Modulation transfer function = 81 7 Camera lenses / Sidney F. Ray = 83 Simple lenses = 83 Compound lenses = 83 Development of the photographic lens = 85 Modern camera lenses = 88 Wide­angle lenses = 91 Long­focus lenses = 93 Zoom and varifocal lenses = 95 Macro lenses = 98 Teleconverters = 99 Optical attachments = 100 Special effects = 102 8 Types of camera / Sidney F. Ray = 104 Survey of development = 104 Camera types = 107 Special purpose cameras = 113 Automatic cameras = 115 Digital cameras = 120 Architecture of the digital camera = 125 9 Camera features / Sidney F. Ray = 131 Shutter systems = 131 The iris diaphragm = 136 Viewfinder systems = 138 Flash synchronization = 143 Focusing systems = 144 Autofocus systems = 151 Exposure metering systems = 154 Battery power = 160 Data imprinting = 161 10 Camera movements / Sidney F. Ray = 163 Introduction = 163 Translational movements = 165 Rotational movements = 165 Lens covering power = 166 Control of image sharpness = 168 Limits to lens tilt = 170 Control of image shape = 171 Perspective control lenses = 173 Shift cameras = 174 11 Optical flters / Sidney F. Ray = 176 Optical filters = 176 Filter sizes = 178 Filters and focusing = 178 Colour filters for black­and­white photography = 179 Colour filters for colour photography = 182 Special filters = 183 Polarizing filters = 186 Filters for darkroom use = 189 12 Sensitive materials and image sensors / Ralph E. Jacobson = 191 Latent image formation in silver halides = 191 Image formation by charge­coupled devices = 193 Production of light­sensitive materials and sensors = 195 Sizes and formats of photographic and electronic sensors and media = 200 13 Spectral sensitivity of photographic materials / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 205 Response of photographic materials to short­wave radiation = 205 Response of photographic materials to visible radiation = 206 Spectral sensitization = 207 Orthochromatic materials = 208 Panchromatic materials = 208 Extended sensitivity materials = 208 Infrared materials = 209 Other uses of dye sensitization = 209 Determination of the colour sensitivity of an unknown material = 210 Wedge spectrograms = 210 Spectral sensitivity of digital cameras = 211 14 Principles of colour photography / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 213 Colour matching = 213 The first colour photograph = 214 Additive colour photography = 214 Subtractive colour photography = 214 Additive processes = 215 Subtractive processes = 217 Integral tripacks = 217 15 Sensitometry / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 218 The subject = 218 Exposure = 218 Density = 219 Effect of light scatter in a negative = 220 Callier coefficient = 220 Density in practice = 221 The characteristic (H and D) curve = 222 Main regions of the negative characteristic curve = 223 Variation of the characteristic curve with the material = 225 Variation of the characteristic curve with development = 225 Gamma­time curve = 226 Variation of gamma with wavelength = 227 Placing of the subject on the characteristic curve = 227 Average gradient and $$\bar G$$ = 228 Contrast index = 228 Effect of variation in development on the negative = 228 Effect of variation in exposure on the negative = 229 Exposure latitude = 230 The response curve of a photographic paper = 231 Maximum black = 231 Exposure range of a paper = 232 Variation of the print curve with the type of emulsion = 232 Variation of the print curve with development = 233 Requirements in a print = 234 Paper contrast = 234 The problem of the subject of high contrast = 235 Tone reproduction = 236 Reciprocity law failure = 238 Sensitometric practice = 239 Sensitometers = 240 Densitometers = 241 Elementary sensitometry = 244 Sensitometry of a digital camera = 245 16 The reproduction of colour / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 247 Colours of the rainbow = 247 Colours of natural objects = 247 Effect of the light source on the appearance of colours = 248 Response of the eye to colours = 248 Primary and complementary colours = 249 Complementary pairs of colours = 250 Low light levels = 250 Black­and­white processes = 250 Colour processes = 251 Formation of subtractive image dyes = 254 Colour sensitometry = 254 Imperfections of colour processes = 258 Correction of deficiencies of the subtractive system = 259 Masking of colour materials = 260 Problems of duplication = 261 The chemistry of colour image formation = 263 Chromogenic processes = 263 Silver­dye­bleach process = 268 Instant colour processes = 269 Alternative method for instant photography = 271 17 Photographic processing / Ralph E. Jacobson = 273 Developers and development = 273 Developing agents = 273 Preservatives = 276 Alkalis = 276 Restrainers (anti­foggants) = 277 Miscellaneous additions to developers = 277 Superadditivity (synergesis) = 278 Monochrome developer formulae in general use = 279 Changes in a developer with use = 282 Replenishment = 283 Preparing developers = 284 Techniques of development = 285 Obtaining the required degree of development = 289 Quality control = 292 Processing following development = 293 Rinse and stop baths = 293 Fixers = 294 Silver recovery = 296 Bleaching of silver images = 298 Washing = 299 Tests for permanence = 300 Drying = 301 18 Speed of materials, sensors and systems / Ralph E. Jacobson = 302 Speed of photographic media = 302 Methods of expressing speed = 302 Speed systems and standards = 305 ISO speed ratings for colour materials = 306 Speed of digital systems = 307 Speed ratings in practice = 308 19 Camera exposure determination / Sidney F. Ray = 310 Camera exposure = 310 Optimum exposure criteria = 311 Exposure latitude = 311 Subject luminance ratio = 312 Development variations = 313 Exposure determination = 313 Practical exposure tests = 315 Light measurement = 315 Exposure meter calibration = 316 Exposure values = 318 Incident light measurements = 318 Exposure meters in practice = 320 Photometry units = 323 Spot meters = 324 In­camera metering systems = 324 Electronic flash exposure metering = 329 Automatic electronic flash = 333 20 Hard copy output media / Ralph E. Jacobson = 336 Hard copy output = 336 Photographic papers = 336 Type of silver halide emulsion = 336 Paper contrast = 337 Paper surface = 338 Paper base = 339 Colour photographic papers = 339 Processing photographic paper = 340 Pictrography and Pictrostat = 344 Dry Silver materials = 345 Cylithographic materials / Cycolor = 346 Thermal imaging materials = 346 Materials for ink­jet printing = 347 21 Production of hard copy / Ralph E. Jacobson = 348 Photographic printing and enlarging = 349 types of enlargers = 349 Light sources for enlarging and printing = 353 Lenses for enlargers = 354 Ancillary equipment = 355 Exposure determination = 355 Conventional image manipulation = 358 Colour printing = 359 Colour enlarger design = 362 Types of colour enlarger = 363 Methods of evaluating colour negatives for printing = 365 Digital output = 367 Evaluating the results = 370 22 Life expectancy of imaging media / Ralph E. Jacobson = 372 Life expectancy of photographic media = 372 Processing conditions = 373 Storage conditions = 375 Atmospheric gases = 376 Toning = 377 Light fading = 378 Life expectancy of digital media = 379 23 Colour matters / Geoffrey G. Attridge = 383 Specification by sample = 383 The physical specification of colour = 384 Specification of colour by synthesis = 384 Colour gamuts = 389 Summing up = 392 24 Theory of image formation / Norman R. Axford = 393 Sinusoidal waves = 394 Images and sine waves = 395 Imaging sinusoidal patterns = 397 Fourier theory of image formation = 398 Measuring modulation transfer functions (MTF) = 406 Discrete transforms and sampling = 408 The MTF for a CCD imaging array = 411 Image quality and MTF = 411 25 Images and information / Norman R. Axford = 413 Image noise = 413 Photographic noise = 413 Quantifying image noise = 417 Practical considerations for the autocorrelation function and the noise power spectrum = 419 Signal­to­noise ratio = 420 Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) = 422 Information theory = 426 26 Digital image processing and manipulation / Norman R. Axford = 428 Linear spatial filtering (convolution) = 428 Frequency domain filtering = 429 Non­linear filtering = 433 Statistical operations (point, grey­level operations) = 434 Image restoration = 438 Edge detection and segmentation = 442 Image data compression = 443 Index = 447

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